Large protected areas, such as national parks, have become particular points of interest in the mycological explorations conducted in Poland in recent years. They are characterized by a great richness of mycobiota (Gierczyk et al.,2009; Halama & Romański,2010; Karasiński et al.,2015; Kujawa et al.,2012,2015; Ławrynowicz,2012; Ruszkiewicz-Michalska et al.,2015; Wojewoda et al.,2016). The specificity in the appearance of fruiting bodies means that subsequent years of research will still provide new data on macromycetes of the studied area (e.g., Gierczyk et al.,2017, Gierczyk, Szczepkowski, et al.,2019,2019; Grzesiak et al.,2017). This is also reflected in the case of the Wolin National Park (WNP). The first mention of macromycetes of the current area of the WNP dates back to the 1930s (Stier,1939; Ulbrich,1932). They consisted of several macrofungi species. A comprehensive study on macromycetes of the WNP was conducted by Lisiewska (1966), presenting the share of macroscopic fungi in plant communities – dunes (Elymo-Ammophiletum and Helichryso-Jasionetum), coastal pine forest (Empetro nigri-Pinetum), and mixed forests (Querco roboris-Pinetum), as well as beech forests (Galio odorati-Fagetum and Fago-Quercetum petraeae). At that time, a total of 283 species and 11 varieties and forms of macrofungi were found. It was only after 50 years that another study was published on the biota of macrofungi occurring in the forest communities of the Park (Stasińska & Sotek,2016). The study mainly covered the areas of strict protection, within which well-developed patches of Cephalanthero rubrae-Fagetum, Galio odorati-Fagetum, Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum, and Fago-Quercetum petraeae complexes have been preserved. It constitutes a significant contribution to the knowledge on mycobiota of the WNP, since the study caused the number of fungi taxa recorded in this area to increase to 476. However, they did not fully exhaust the existing richness of mycobiota in this area. This is evidenced by continued research, which has resulted in the discovery of many species that were not previously recorded. This study is treated as the second part of the article “New data to the knowledge of macrofungi of Wolin National Park,” and presents new data supplementing the knowledge on the diversity of macrofungi in the Park.

Material and Methods

The location and physiographic and floristic characteristics of the WNP were presented in the article by Stasińska and Sotek (2016), which is the first part of the research on macromycetes in this area. Currently, the list of macrofungi species contains data from field studies conducted from May to October 2017 and earlier data that were not included in the first article. The list includes only new, unpublished locations of fungi species. The study was conducted using the route method in the whole Park, with particular emphasis on its western part.

Due to the significant mutual similarity of Russula sardonia and R. xerampelina basidiomes and the high variability of their morphological structure, molecular methods were used to identify these species. DNA was extracted using the GeneMATRIX Plant & Fungi DNA Purification Kit (EURx, Poland). Each sample consisted of a dry fragment of basidiocarp. DNA samples were analyzed based on PCR amplification (with primers ITS-1F and ITS-4 and a Type-it Microsatellite PCR Kit; Qiagen, Germany) and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (Gardes & Bruns,1993; White et al.,1990). Amplification was confirmed using gel electrophoresis. The PCR products obtained were sequenced using an ABI Prism 3130XL Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, USA) sequencer with ITS-1F/ITS-4 primers, in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland). The consensus sequence was created and unclear readings were corrected manually using BioEdit 7.2. The sequences were compared to the GenBank and UNITE databases using BLAST search (Altschul et al.,1990).

The specimens were identified by examining macroscopic and microscopic features, using standard methods of studying macrofungi, and monographs by Aronsen and Læssøe (2016), Bernicchia and Gorjón (2010), Breiten­bach and Kräzlin (1984,1986,1991,1995,2000), Knudsen and Vesterholt (2012), Kränzlin (2005), Romagnesi (1996), and Stangl (1989). The fungal nomenclature and the synonyms were given according to the Index Fungorum database ( The names of vascular plants in the present paper follows the description by Mirek et al. (2002), and the names of the plant communities follows the description by Matuszkie­wicz (2006). The identified specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of the University of Szczecin (SZUB-F), Poland.


On the basis of mycological exploration conducted in 2017 and taking into account previously unpublished data, 205 species of macrofungi were found in total, including 25 from Ascomycota and 180 from Basidiomycota. Among them, 32 were species new to the WNP, while 17 were classified as threatened taxa (Wojewoda & Ławrynowicz,2006). The endangered species (Category E) were represented by Aleurodiscus disciformis, Calcipostia guttulata, and Geastrum triplex, the vulnerable species (V) by Cortinarius cf. cyanites, Inocybe grammata, Inocutis rheades, and Xylobolus frustulatus, and the rare species (R) by 10 taxa, including Helvella lacunosa, Meruliopsis taxicola, Mycena crocata, Plicaturopsis crispa, and Pseudomerulius aureus.

More than half of the macromycetes included in this study were recorded outside well-developed patches of plant communities, while 89 species were found in Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum, and only one species in Galio odorati-Fagetum and Fago-Quercetum petraeae. Taking into account the substrate on which the fungi grew, the group of saprotrophic wood decay fungi was the most abundant, as it was represented by 95 species. Among this group, macrofungi on deciduous trees dominated, i.e., 27 species were recorded on Fagus and 18 on Quercus. The share of macrofungi growing on coniferous wood was also noticeable, i.e., 22 species were found on Pinus. Thirty-two species of fungi were found on wood, whose taxonomic affiliations were difficult to determine. Terrestrial and litter saprotrophic fungi were not numerous groups, 25 and 19 species, respectively. On the other hand, mycorrhizal fungi were numerous – 58 taxa, which constituted almost 1/3 of the species included in this study. Parasitic fungi were represented by nine species.

Among the recorded species, the following were found most frequently: Amanita fulva (10 localities), Diatrype stigma (10 localities), Calocera viscosa (nine localities), Gymnopus dryophilus (nine localities), Lactarius camphoratus and L. fluens (eight localities each). Macromycetes were present in one locality only, i.e., 83 taxa, and constituted 40% of the species found. This group included both rare in Poland species, such as Hohenbuehelia auriscalpium, H. grisea, and Laxitextum bicolor, as well as more common ones, such as Clavulina rugosa, Mycena inclinata, M. pura, Peziza vesiculosa, and Russula ochroleuca.

The following abbreviations are used in the list of species: BDSP – strict protection area of Dr B. Dyakowski; SJSP – strict protection area of Doc. S. Jarosz. Plant community: FQ – Fago-Quercetum petraeae; GF – Galio odorati-Fagetum; LF – Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum. Category of threat (according to Wojewoda & Ławrynowicz,2006): E – endangered; V – vulnerable; R – rare; * – species new for WNP; # – species confirmed using the DNA barcoding technique; div. – forest division number; May, August 2017 – observation date.

List of Species: Ascomycota

Ascocoryne sarcoides (Jacq.) J. W. Groves & D. E. Wilson – on wood; div. 16; October 2017.

Bertia moriformis (Tode) De Not. – on twigs; LF; div. 17, 18, 88, 107, 116; May–October 2017.

Bisporella citrina (Batsch) Korf & S. E. Carp. – on branches; LF; div. 88, 118; October 2017.

Colpoma quercinum (Pers.) Wallr. – on twigs of Quercus; LF; div. 118; May 2017.

Dialonectria episphaeria (Tode) Cooke [= Nectria epishaeria (Tode) Fr.] – on Diatrype stigma; LF; div. 68, 88, 107, 116; May–October 2017.

Diatrype disciformis (Hoffm.) Fr. – on branches of Fagus; LF; div. 17, 107, 118; May–October 2017.

D. stigma (Hoffm.) Fr. – on twigs of Fagus and Quercus; LF; div. 16, 18, 67, 88, 89, 107, 116-119; May–October 2017.

Diatrypella favacea (Fr.) Ces. & De Not. [= D. verruciformis (Ehrh.) Nitschke] – on branches of Betula; LF; div. 16, 46, 106; May–October 2017.

D. quercina (Pers.) Cooke – on branches of Quercus; LF; div. 106, 117, 118; May–October 2017.

Helvella crispa (Scop.) Fr. – on ground; LF; div. 16, 88; August–September 2017.

H. lacunosa Afzel. – on ground; LF; div. 16; September 2017; R.

H. macropus (Pers.) P. Karst. [= Macropodia macropus (Pers.) Fuckel] – on ground; div. 88c; August 2017.

Humaria hemisphaerica (F. H. Wigg.) Fuckel – on ground; div. 88; July 2017.

Hypoxylon fragiforme (Pers.) J. Kickx f. – on branches and logs of Fagus; LF; div. 17, 18, 107, 119; May–October 2017.

Jackrogersella multiformis (Fr.) L. Wendt, Kuhnert & M. Stadler [= Hypoxylon multiforme (Fr.) Fr.] – on branch of Betula; div. 68; September 2017.

Kretzschmaria deusta (Hoffm.) P. M. D. Martin [= Ustulina deusta (Hoffm.) Maire] – on stumps of Fagus; LF; div. 16, 46, 88; May–October 2017.

Lachnum virgineum (Batsch) P. Karst. [= Dasyscyphus virgineus (Batsch) Gray] – on litter; LF; div. 68, 88, 89, 117; June 2017.

Mollisia cinerea (Batsch) P. Karst. – on wood; LF; div. 17, 68, 88, 89, 106, 118; June, October 2017.

Nectria cinnabarina (Tode) Fr. – on twigs; div. 17, 88; October 2017.

Peziza micropus Pers. – on log of Fagus; div. 16; October 2017.

P. vesiculosa Bull. – on ground; div. 46; September 2017.

Rhizina undulata Fr. – on burnt ground; Międzyzdroje (Nadbrzeżna Street, near div. 68); August 2017.

Xylaria carpophila (Pers.) Fr. – on cupules of Fagus; LF; div. 17, 18, 67, 89, 107; May–October 2017.

X. hypoxylon (L.) Grev. – on wood; LF; div. 16, 89, 117; June–October 2017.

X. longipes Nitschke – on wood; LF; div. 88g; August 2017.


*Agaricus campestris L. – on ground; div. 88; July 2017.

*A. xanthodermus Genev. – on ground; div. 46, 67; July–August 2017.

*Aleurodiscus disciformis (DC.) Pat. [= Aleurocystidiellum disciforme (DC.) Boidin, Terra & Lanq.] (Figure 1) – on bark of trunk of living Quercus; div. 88c; June 2017; E.

Figure 1

Basidiomata of Aleurodiscus disciformis from the Wolin National Park (June 13, 2017). Photography by MS.

Amanita citrina Pers. – on ground; LF; div. 16, 18, 116; August–October 2017.

A. fulva Fr. – on ground; LF; div. 18, 46, 67, 68, 88, 106, 116–119; July-October 2017.

A. gemmata (Fr.) Bertill. – on ground; div. 116; September 2017.

A. pantherina (DC.) Krombh. – on ground; div. 67, 88, 117; July–August 2017.

A. phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr.) Link – on ground; div. 117; August 2017.

A. rubescens Pers. – on ground; LF; div. 17, 46, 68, 88, 89, 118; June–October 2017.

Ampulloclitocybe clavipes (Pers.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys [= Clitocybe clavipes (Pers.) P. Kumm.] – on ground; div. 116, 117; October 2017.

Apioperdon pyriforme (Schaeff.) Vizzini [= Lycoperdon pyriforme Schaeff.] – on stump; div. 67; August–September 2017.

Armillaria ostoyae (Romagn.) Herink – on wood; div. 16–18; October 2017.

Atheliachaete sanguinea (Fr.) Spirin & Zmitr. [= Phanerochaete sanguinea (Fr.) Pouzar] – on twigs; div. 118; October 2017.

Auricularia auricula-judae (Bull.) Quél. – on trunks of Fagus; div. 17, 88; June, October 2017.

Auriscalpium vulgare Gray – on cone of Pinus; LF; div. 16, 68, 88, 106, 119; June–October 2017.

Baeospora myosura (Fr.) Singer – on cone of Picea; div. 117b; October 2017.

Bjerkandera adusta (Willd.) P. Karst. – on wood of Quercus; div. 17; October 2017.

*Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. – on ground; div. 46, 67, 68, 88; July–August 2017.

B. subtomentosus L. [= Xerocomus subtomentosus (L.) Quél.] – on ground; div. 18, 88; July–October 2017.

*Bovistella utriformis (Bull.) Demoulin & Rebriev [= Calvatia utriformis (Bull.) Jaap] – on ground; div. 67, 117; August 2017.

Calcipostia guttulata (Sacc.) B. K. Cui, L. L. Shen & Y. C. Dai [= Postia guttulata (Sacc.) Jülich] – on logs of Pseudotsuga; div. 68; August 2017; E.

Calocera cornea (Batsch) Fr. – on wood of deciduous trees; LF; div. 16, 116; July–October 2017.

C. viscosa (Pers.) Fr. – on stumps of Pinus; div. 46, 67, 68, 88, 107, 116–119; July–September 2017.

Cantharellus cibarius Fr. – on ground; LF; div. 46, 106, 116, 117; July–August 2017.

Craterellus tubaeformis (Fr.) Quél. – on ground; div. 88, 106; August 2017.

Cerioporus mollis (Sommerf.) Zmitr. & Kovalenko [= Datronia mollis (Sommerf.) Donk] – on log and trunk of Fagus; div. 107, 117; July 2017.

C. varius (Pers.) Zmitr. & Kovalenko [= Polyporus varius (Pers.) Fr.] – on branch of Fagus; div. 107; September 2017.

Chlorophyllum rhacodes (Vittad.) Vellinga [= Macrolepiota rhacodes (Vittad.) Singer var. rhacodes] – on ground; div. 107; October 2017.

*Clavulina rugosa (Bull.) J. Schröt. – on ground; div. 116; October 2017.

Clitocybe metachroa (Fr.) P. Kumm. – on litter; div. 2 (SJSP); November 2012.

C. nebularis (Batsch) P. Kumm. – on ground; LF; div.16, 17; October 2017.

Coniophora arida (Fr.) P. Karst. – on logs and branches of Pinus; div. 46, 68, 116, 117; September–October 2017.

*C. puteana (Schumach.) P. Karst. – on stumps of Pinus; div. 89, 117; October 2017.

*Conocybe pulchella (Velen.) Hauskn. & Svrček [= C. digitalina (Velen.) Singer] – on ground; on the forest path between div. 69d, h, and 70d; September 2014; det. B. Gierczyk.

Coprinellus micaceus (Bull.) Vilgalys, Hopple & Jacq. Johnson – on stumps; div. 18, 67, 70, 117; September–October 2017.

Cortinarius bolaris (Pers.) Fr. – on ground; LF; div. 88, 106, 117; July–August 2017.

*C. brunneus (Pers.) Fr. – on ground, under Betula and Pinus; div. 25b; November 2012.

*C. cf. cyanites Fr. – on ground, under Fagus; div. 16; September 2016; V.

C. flexipes (Pers.) Fr. – on ground, under Fagus and Pinus; LF; div. 68; October 2012.

*C. cf. hemitrichus (Pers.) Fr. – on ground; under Fagus, Quercus, and Pinus; LF; div. 109a; October 2012.

*C. hinnuleus Fr. – on ground; LF, GF; div. 2j (SJSP), 11, 48, 122, 125 (BDSP); October–November 2012.

C. semisanguineus (Fr.) Gillet – on ground; div. 88, 117; August 2017.

*Crepidotus mollis (Schaeff.) Staude – on log of Fagus; LF; div. 67g; July 2017.

C. variabilis (Pers.) P. Kumm. – on litter; div. 16; October 2017.

Cystoderma amianthinum (Scop.) Fayod – on ground; div. 17; October 2017.

Dacrymyces stillatus Nees – on wood; div. 17, 68, 70, 107, 117; May–October 2017.

Daedalea quercina (L.) Pers. – on log of Quercus; div. 117; July 2017.

Daedaleopsis confragosa (Bolton) J. Schröt. – on trunk of Fagus; div. 107; May 2017.

Exidia nigricans (With.) P. Roberts (= Exidia plana Donk) – on wood of deciduous trees; div. 16, 46, 67, 116–119; May–November 2017.

Fomes fomentarius (L.) Fr. – on logs and trunks of Fagus and Quercus; div. 17, 88, 118; May–October 2017.

Fomitiporia robusta (P. Karst.) Fiasson & Niemelä [= Phellinus robustus (P. Karst.) Bourdot & Galzin] – on trunks of Quercus; LF; div. 88, 117; May–September 2017.

Fomitopsis betulina (Bull.) B. K. Cui, M. L. Han & Y. C. Dai [= Piptoporus betulinus (Bull.) P. Karst.] – on wood of Betula; LF; div. 16, 106; May–October 2017.

F. pinicola (Sw.) P. Karst. – on logs of Pinus; div. 67, 117, 119; May–October 2017.

Fuscoporia ferruginosa (Schrad.) Murrill [= Phellinus ferruginosus (Schrad.) Pat.] – on branches of Quercus; div. 16, 117, 118; July–October 2017.

Geastrum fimbriatum Fr. – on ground; LF; div. 88; October 2017; R.

G. triplex Jungh. – on ground; LF; div. 16; October 2017; E.

*Gloeophyllum odoratum (Wulfen) Imazeki – on stump of Pinus; div. 70m (N lakeside of Czajcze Lake); May 2017.

G. sepiarium (Wulfen) P. Karst. – on log of Pinus; div. 67g; July 2017.

*Gloeoporus taxicola (Pers.) Gilb. & Ryvarden [= Meruliopsis taxicola (Pers.) Bondartsev] – on branch of Pinus; LF; div. 68; October 2012; R.

Gymnopilus penetrans (Fr.) Murril – on wood; div. 88, 116, 117; October 2017.

Gymnopus androsaceus (L.) Della Magg. & Trassin. – on litter; div. 18, 67, 88, 106; July–October 2017.

G. dryophilus (Bull.) Murrill – on litter; LF; div. 17, 46, 67, 70, 88, 116–119; July–October 2017.

Hapalopilus rutilans (Pers.) Murrill [= H. nidulans (Fr.) P. Karst.] – on branches of Quercus; div. 89; August 2017.

Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. – on stump of Pinus; div. 119; July 2017.

*Hohenbuehelia auriscalpium (Maire) Singer – on log of Fagus; GF; div. 125 (BDSP); October 2012.

*H. grisea (Peck) Singer – on stump; div. 88; August 2017.

H. serotina (Pers.) Singer [= Panellus serotinus (Pers.) Kühner] – on logs of Fagus; LF; div. 16, 46; October 2017.

Hygrophorus eburneus (Bull.) Fr. – on ground; LF; div. 16, 17; October 2017.

Hymenochaete rubiginosa (Dicks.) Lév. – on stumps of Quercus; LF; div. 16, 46, 117, 118; May–October 2017.

Hymenopellis radicata (Relhan) R. H. Petersen [= Xerula radicata (Relhan) Dörfelt] – on roots of Fagus; LF; div. 17, 46; August–October 2017.

Hyphoderma setigerum (Fr.) Donk – on wood; LF; div. 16, 88, 117; August, September–October 2017.

Hypholoma fasciculare (Huds.) P. Kumm. – on wood; LF; div. 16, 17, 18, 117, 119; July–October 2017.

Imleria badia (Fr.) Vizzini – on ground; div. 67, 88; August–September 2017.

Inocybe geophylla (Bull.) P. Kumm. var. geophylla – on ground; div. 67, 89; July 2017.

I. geophylla (Bull.) P. Kumm. var. lilacina – on ground; LF; div. 16; October 2017.

*I. grammata Quél. – on sandy soil, under Pinus; div. 88c (near road); July 2017; V.

I. lanuginosa (Bull.) P. Kumm. – on ground, among mosses; LF; div. 46, 68, 88; July–August 2017.

*I. margaritispora (Berk.) Sacc. – on ground; LF; div. 14 (Gosań Mt); August 2012.

*Inocutis rheades (Pers.) Fiasson & Niemelä [= Inonotus rheades (Pers.) Bondartsev & Singer] – on log of Fagus; LF; div. 116a; October 2012; V.

Kuehneromyces mutabilis (Schaeff.) Singer & A. H. Sm. – on wood of deciduous trees; LF; div. 16, 46, 68; October 2017.

Laccaria amethystina Cooke – on ground; LF; div. 16, 46, 88, 89, 106, 117, 118; July–August, October 2017.

L. laccata (Scop.) Cooke – on ground; LF; div. 68; August 2017.

L. proxima (Boud.) Pat. – on ground; div. 46; August 2017.

Lactarius camphoratus (Bull.) Fr. – on ground, under Fagus and Pinus LF; div. 46, 67, 68, 88, 106, 116–118; July–August 2017.

*L. cf. decipiens Quél. – on ground, under Fagus and Quercus; LF; div. 14 (Gosań Mt); August 2012.

L. fluens Boud. – on ground; LF; div. 16, 17, 46, 68, 88, 106, 117, 118; August–October 2017.

L. quietus (Fr.) Fr. – on ground; LF; div. 17, 46, 88, 106, 116–118; July–August, October 2017.

L. rufus (Scop.) Fr. – on ground; div. 116–118; September–October 2017.

L. tabidus Fr. – on ground; div. 106, 116–118; July–August 2017.

L. vellereus (Fr.) Fr. – on ground; LF; div. 88; August–September 2017.

*Laxitextum bicolor (Pers.) Lentz – on log of Fagus; div. 104; August 2012.

Lentinus substrictus (Bolton) Zmitr. & Kovalenko (= Polyporus ciliatus Fr.) – on branches; div. 16, 17, 116; June, October 2017.

Lepiota cristata (Bolton) P. Kumm. – on ground, among grass; Międzyzdroje (Nadbrzeżna Street, near div. 68); July 2017.

Lepistanuda (Bull.) Cooke – on ground; div. 16; October 2017.

Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. – on ground; LF; div. 16, 88; July–October 2017.

Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer – on ground; div. 67, 68; July–September 2017.

Marasmiellus confluens (Pers.) J. S. Oliveira [= Gymnopus confluens (Pers.) Antonín, Halling & Noordel.] – on litter; div. 88, 107; August 2017.

M. peronatus (Bolton) J. S. Oliveira [= G. peronatus (Bolton) Gray] – on litter; div. 18, 46, 88, 117, 118; August–October 2017.

Megacollybia platyphylla (Pers.) Kotl. & Pouzar – on wood of deciduous trees; LF; div. 17, 46, 88, 107, 116–118; June–October 2017.

Mensularia nodulosa (Fr.) T. Wagner & M. Fisch. [= Inonotus nodulosus (Fr.) P. Karst.] – on trunks of Fagus; LF; div. 88; May–September 2017.

Mucidula mucida (Schrad.) Pat. [= Oudemansiella mucida (Schrad.) Höhn.] – on logs of Fagus; LF; div. 16, 88; August–October 2017.

Mycena crocata (Schrad.) P. Kumm. – on litter; LF; div. 16; October 2017; R.

M. galericulata (Scop.) Gray – on stumps of deciduous trees; div. 17, 106, 116–118; July–October 2017.

M. galopus (Pers.) P. Kumm. – on litter; div. 16, 67, 68, 88, 106, 117; June–October 2017.

M. haematopus (Pers.) P. Kumm. var. haematopus – on logs of Fagus; LF; div. 16, 17, 68, 118; August, October 2017.

M. inclinata (Fr.) Quél. – on stump of Quercus; LF; div. 16; October 2017.

M. pura (Pers.) P. Kumm. – on ground and litter; LF; div. 16; October 2017.

M. sanguinolenta (Alb. & Schwein.) P. Kumm. – on litter; LF; div. 68, 106, 116, 117; July–August 2017.

M. stylobates (Pers.) P. Kumm. – on leaves of Fagus; LF; div. 68; July 2017.

M. vitilis (Fr.) Quél. – on litter; div. 88, 106, 107, 117, 118; July–August 2017.

Mycetinis alliaceus (Jacq.) Earle ex A. W. Wilson & Desjardin [= Marasmius alliaceus (Jacq.) Fr.] – on wood of Fagus; LF; div. 17, 88g, 107; July–August, October 2017.

Neoboletus erythropus (Pers.) C. Hahn (= Boletus luridiformis Rostk. var. luridiformis = B. erythropus Pers.) – on ground; LF; div. 46, 67, 68; August 2017.

Panellus stipticus (Bull.) P. Karst. – on stump of Quercus; div. 16; October 2017.

Paralepista flaccida (Sowerby) Vizzini [= Lepista flaccida (Sowerby) Pat.] – on litter; div. 16, 67, 118; August, October 2017.

Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. – on ground; LF; div. 16, 17, 18, 88; July–October 2017.

Peniophora cinerea (Pers.) Cooke – on branches; LF; div. 17, 67, 106; May–October 2017.

P. quercina (Pers.) Cooke – on branches of Quercus; div. 17, 88, 106, 117, 118; May–October 2017.

Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr.) Pat. – on roots of Pinus; div. 67, 88; September 2017.

Phallus impudicus L. – on ground; LF; div. 68, 88, 117, 118; August–August 2017.

Phellinus pini (Brot.) Pilát [= Porodaedalea pini (Brot.) Murrill ] – on trunks and log of Pinus; LF; div. 67, 88, 89, 106, 107, 118; May–October 2017; R.

Phlebia radiata Fr. – on logs of Fagus; div. 16, 68; October 2017.

Ph.tremellosa (Schrad.) Nakasone & Burds. – on logs of Fagus; LF; div. 16, 17; October 2017.

Pholiota aurivella (Batsch) P. Kumm. – on trunk of the living Fagus; LF; div. 46d; September 2016.

Ph. lenta (Pers.) Singer – on litter; LF; div. 16; October 2017.

*Piloderma cf. bicolor (Peck) Jülich [= P. fallax (Lib.) Stalpers] – on litter; div. 13 (Gosań Mt); August 2012.

*Plicaturopsis crispa (Pers.) D. A. Reid – on branch of Fagus; LF; div. 16; October 2017; R.

Pluteus cervinus (Schaeff.) P. Kumm. – on wood of deciduous trees; LF; div. 16, 67, 88; July–October 2017.

Polyporus lipsiensis (Batsch) E. H. L. Krause [= Ganoderma lipsiense (Batsch) G. F. Atk.] – on logs of Fagus; LF; div. 17, 46; May–October 2017.

P. tuberaster (Jacq. ex Pers.) Fr. – on branches; div. 16, 88; October 2017; R.

Postia caesia (Schrad.) P. Karst. [= Oligoporus caesius (Schrad.) Gilb. & Ryvarden] – on wood of Pinus; div. 67, 68, 88, 106, 107; July–September 2017.

P. ptychogaster (F. Ludw.) Vesterh. [= O. ptychogaster (F. Ludw.) Falck & O. Falck] – on logs of Pinus; div. 68; October 2017; R.

Psathyrella piluliformis (Bull.) P. D. Orton – on wood of Quercus; div. 88; September 2017.

Pseudomerulius aureus (Fr.) Jülich – on logs of Pinus; LF; div. 68, 88; October 2017; R.

Pseudosperma rimosum (Bull.) Matheny & Esteve-Rav. [= I. rimosa (Bull.) P. Kumm. = I. fastigiata (Schaeff.) Quél.] – on ground; LF; div.88c; July 2017.

Radulomyces molaris (Chaillet ex Fr.) M. P. Christ. – on branch of Quercus; div. 67; July 2017.

Ramaria stricta (Pers.) Quél. – on ground; LF; div. 16; October 2017.

*Rhizopogon roseolus (Corda) Th. Fr. – on ground; on a forest road to Zielonka Hill (div. 128h); September 2016.

Rhodocollybia butyracea (Bull.) Lennox f. butyracea – on ground; LF; div. 16–18; October 2017.

Rickenella fibula (Bull.) Raithelh. – among mosses; LF; div. 16, 68, 116, 117; July–August, October 2017.

Russula adusta (Pers.) Fr. (= R. nigricans Fr). – on ground; div. 17; October 2017.

R. cyanoxantha (Schaeff.) Fr. – on ground; LF; div. 68, 89, 117; July 2017.

R. emetica (Schaeff.) Pers. – on ground; div. 88; August 2017.

R. nobilis Velen. (= R. mairei Singer) – on ground; LF; div. 2 (SJSP), 46, 67, 68, 88; November 2012, August 2017.

R. ochroleuca Fr. – on ground; div. 118; October 2017.

R. risigallina (Batsch) Sacc. [= R. lutea (Huds.) Gray] – on ground; div. 68; August 2017.

*#R. sardonia Fr. – on ground, under Pinus and Quercus; FQ, grey dune; div. 1A (confirmed by T. Leski), 1B, 69t (by the forest road; det. T. Leski), 70g; September 2014, 2017, October 2015.

R. torulosa Bres. – on ground, under Pinus on a grey dune; div. 1A, 1B; September 2017.

#R. xerampelina (Schaeff.) Fr. – on ground, under Pinus; on a grey dune; div. 1A (confirmed by T. Leski); September 2013.

Schizophyllum commune Fr. – on wood; div. 67; July 2017.

Schizopora paradoxa (Schrad.) Donk [= Xylodon paradoxus (Schrad.) Chevall.] – on wood; div. 88, 116–118; May–September 2017.

Scleroderma citrinum Pers. – on ground; div. 46, 67; September 2017.

*Skeletocutis amorpha (Fr.) Kotl. & Pouzar – on logs and stump of Pinus; div. 67, 117; October 2017.

*S. nivea (Jungh.) Jean Keller – on log of Fagus; LF; div. 2j (SJSP); November 2012.

Sparassis crispa (Wulfen) Fr. – at the base of Pinus; div. 118; September 2017; R.

Stereum hirsutum (Willd.) Pers. – on wood; LF; div. 17, 67, 88, 106, 107, 118; July–October 2017.

*S. ochraceoflavum (Schwein.) Sacc. – on wood; div. 88 (near forest road); October 2017.

S. rugosum Pers. – on wood; div. 18, 46, 107; July–October 2017.

S. sanguinolentum (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr. – on branches of Pinus; div. 67, 68, 88, 106; July–September 2017.

Strobilurus stephanocystis (Kühner & Romagn. ex Hora) Singer – on cone of Pinus; div. 16, 88, 89; May, October 2017.

Stropharia aeruginosa (Curtis) Quél. – on ground and wood; div. 16, 17; October 2017.

Suillus bovinus (L.) Roussel – on ground; div. 88, 117; August 2017.

S. granulatus (L.) Roussel – on ground; div. 68, 106, 117; August 2017.

S. grevillei (Klotzsh) Singer – on ground; div. 67; June–July 2017.

Tapinella atrotomentosa (Batsch) Šutara [= Paxillus atrotomentosus (Batsch) Fr.] – on logs and stumps of Pinus; div. 46, 68, 88, 106; July–August 2017.

T. panuoides (Fr.) E.-J. Gilbert [= P. panuoides (Fr.) Fr.] – on logs of Pinus; div. 88c; August 2017.

Thelephora terrestris Ehr. – on ground and wood; div. 17, 46, 68, 88, 117; July–October 2016–2017.

Trametes gibbosa (Pers.) Fr. – on stumps and logs of Fagus; LF; div. 16, 67g, 88g; July, October 2017.

T. hirsuta (Wulfen) Lloyd – on wood; div. 16, 17, 46; September 2016, October 2017.

T. versicolor (L.) Lloyd – on wood; div. 16, 18; October 2017.

Trichaptumabietinum (Pers. ex J. F. Gmel.) Ryvarden – on logs of Pinus; div. 88, 118; May–September 2017.

T. fuscoviolaceum (Ehrenb.) Ryvarden – on logs of Pinus; div. 88, 118; May–September 2017.

Tricholoma sulphureum (Bull.) P. Kumm. – on ground; LF; div. 16; October 2017.

T. terreum (Schaeff.) P. Kumm. – on ground; div. 17; October 2017.

Tylopilus felleus (Bull.) P. Karst. – on ground; LF; div. 68, 106, 117; August–September 2017.

Vuilleminia comedens (Nees) Mraire – on branches of Quercus; LF; div. 16, 88, 107, 118; May–October 2017.

*Xenasmatella vaga (Fr.) Stalpers [= Phlebiella vaga (Fr.) P. Karst.] – on log of Pinus; div. 68d; July 2017.

Xerocomellus chrysenteron (Bull.) Šutara – on ground; div. 16, 17, 46; August, October 2017.

*X. cisalpinus (Simonini, H. Ladurner & Peintner) Klofac – on ground; div. 16; October 2017.

Xeromphalina cauticinalis (Fr.) Kühner & Maire – on ground and needles; div. 17; October 2017.

Xylobolus frustulatus (Pers.) P. Karst. (Figure 2) – on old logs of Quercus; LF; div. 117, 66 (the Międzyzdroje Forest District, near the eastern border of the WNP); June–October 2017; V.

Figure 2

Basidiomata of Xylobolus frustulatus from the Wolin National Park (August 13, 2017). Photography by MS.

Discussion and Conclusions

The results of this study have contributed to a better recognition of the mycobiota of the WNP. The number of fungi species known from the Park area increased by 32 that were previously unreported, and currently it amounts to 508 taxa. New localities were recorded for more than 35% out of 476 previously observed fungi species (Czubiński & Urbański,1951; Dominik,1957; Friedrich,2011; Lisiewska,1966; Ławrynowicz,1983,1989; Ronikier,2005; Skirgiełło,1970; Stasińska & Sotek,2016; Stier,1939; Ulbrich,1932; Wojewoda,2002; Wojewoda et al.,2002).

The macromycetes new to the Park include taxa that were rarely recorded in Poland, most often in well-preserved old stands under protection. In this group of fungi, Aleurodiscus disciformis and Calcipostia guttulata attracted special attention, and were included in the endangered category (E) of the “Red list of the macrofungi in Poland” (Wojewoda & Ławrynowicz,2006). Aleurodiscus disciformis was reported from only a few localities, including nature reserves “Trębaczew” and “Parkowe,” the Białowieża Primeval Forest (Wojewoda,2003), and the Kashubian Landscape Park (Karasiński,2016). This species is critically endangered (CR) in the Czech Republic (Holec & Beran,2006) and is known mainly from the southern part of this country (Zíbarová,2015). According to Bernicchia and Gorjón (2010), it has a wide range in Europe, including Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Slovakia, Sweden, and Ukraine. In Poland, C. guttulata is rarely found as the previous species, e.g., in the Beech Forest near Szczecin (Kujawa & Gierczyk,2019), the Białowieża Primeval Forest (Karasiński et al.,2009; Szczepkowski et al.,2008), and the Kaczawskie Mts (Gierczyk et al.,2018). In neighboring Germany, on the other hand, it has been reported from a number of localities (Dämmrich et al.,2019). In Finland, until recently, it was red-listed in the category: near threatened (NT) and has now been downgraded to the category: least concern (LC) (Kotiranta et al.,2019). Other species of fungi newly recorded in the Park are also known from single or a few sites in Poland, such as Hohenbuehelia auriscalpium – from the Wigry National Park (Halama & Romański,2010), the “Ostrzycki Las” reserve (Kujawa & Gierczyk,2016), and the Bieszczady Mts (Gierczyk, Kujawa, et al.,2019), and Hohenbuehelia grisea – from Częstochowa Upland (Adamczyk,2011), the Kampinos National Park (Karasiński et al., 2015), and the Bieszczady Mts (Gierczyk, Kujawa, et al.,2019).

A large number of the saprotrophic wood decay fungi (95 species) resulted from a significant accumulation of substrate in the form of decaying logs and trunks, which were left to naturally decay, and have become suitable habitats for the development of this group of organisms. The share of mycorrhizal fungi (58 taxa; 28.3%) in the studied western part of the Park indicates the good health condition of the stand. Moreover, few parasitic fungi (nine species; 4.4%), of which Phellinus pini was the most frequent (it grew on old pines), do not pose a threat to it.

The significant species diversity of mycobiota of the WNP shown in the current and previous studies (Czubiński & Urbański,1951; Dominik,1957; Friedrich,2011; Lisiewska,1966; Ławrynowicz,1983,1989; Ronikier,2005; Skirgiełło,1970; Stasińska & Sotek,2016; Stier,1939; Ulbrich,1932; Wojewoda,2002; Wojewoda et al.,2002), confirms the very high natural value of this area. The number of macrofungi (508 species) found in the WNP is almost 1/5 higher than the number of species recorded in two other national parks in Pomerania, the Słowiński National Park (429) (Bujakiewicz & Lisiewska,1983) and the Drawa National Park (379) (Stefaniak, 2013, as cited in Karasiński et al.,2015). In terms of the number of identified taxa, the WNP is only slightly inferior to the Bory Tucholskie National Park (517) (Grzesiak et al.,2017). National parks located in other regions of Poland are much richer in species of fungi, e.g., the Białowieża National Park (1585) (Karasiński et al., 2010, as cited in Karasiński et al.,2015), and the Kampinos National Park (1,611) (Gierczyk, Szczepkowski, et al.,2019). Differences in the number of species observed between the WNP and other national parks are related, inter alia, to the duration and intensity of mycological research, as well as to the size of objects, the diversity of ecosystems, and the plant communities.

The presented data only, to some extent, supplement the knowledge about macromycetes in the Park. Due to unfavorable weather conditions for macromycetes occurrence in recent years, their biology, and the lack of systematic mycological observations, the list of fungi species illustrating the richness of the WNP biota is still open.

Handling Editor

Andrzej Szczepkowski; Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Poland;

Authors’ Contributions

Both authors participated in the field research and contributed to the manuscript preparation.

Competing Interests

No competing interests have been declared.