More details
Hide details
WULS-SGGW, Faculty of Food Sciences
Publication date: 2021-07-07
Cocoa originates from beans of the cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao L.) and it is a main ingredient in chocolate manufacture. Cocao is a very important commodity in the international trade. The journey from cocoa tree to chocolate bar is not complex, but it requires several steps, each of which requires special treatment in order to get the best from the finished product. Cocoa is a product with a relatively constant growth in demand. On the supply side, extraordinary market developments caused for example by weather patterns, diseases, or environmental or political forces may significantly change the amount of cocoa harvested. The following review outlines the sustainable development, origin of cocoa (traceability) and the supply chain in the processing of cocoa beans. It depicts a method of identifying cocoa in a supply chain, as well as some new technologies, for example radio frequency identification and mapping of supply chain systems.
Acierno V., Yener S., Alewijn M., Biasioli F., Van Ruth S., 2016. Factors contributing to the variation in the volatile composition of chocolate: Botanical and geographical origins of the cocoa beans, and brand-related formulation and processing. Food Res. Int. 84, 86–95.
Aculey P.C., Snitkjaer P., Owusu M., Bassompiere M., Takrama J.S., Nørgaard L., Nielsen D.S., 2010. Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods and chemometrics. J. Food Sci. 75(6), 300–307.
ADM Cocoa International, 2009. Cocoa and chocolate manual. Rolle.
Afoakwa E.O., 2010. Chocolate science and technology. John Wiley and Sons, New York NY.
Afoakwa E.O., 2015. Cocoa processing and chocolate technology. In: R.F. Schwan, G.H. Fleet, E.O. Afoakwa (Eds.). Cocoa and coffee fermentations. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL.
Afoakwa E.O., Quaro J., Takrama J., Budu A.S., Saalia F.K., 2013. Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation. J. Food Sci. Technol. 50(6), 1097–1105.
Alañón M.E., Castle S.M., Siswanto P.J., Cifuentes-Gómez T., Spencer J.P.E., 2016. Assessment of flavanol stereoisomers and caffeine and theobromine content in commercial chocolates. Food Chem. 208, 177–184.
Ali A., Selamat J., Che Man Y.B., Suria A.M., 2001. Effect of storage temperature on texture, polymorphic structure, bloom formation and sensory attributes of filled dark chocolate. Food Chem. 72(4), 491–497.
Anang B.T., Mensah F., Asamoah A., 2013. Farmers’ assessment of the government spraying program in Ghana. J. Econ. Sustain. Dev. 4(7), 92–99.
Aung M.M., Chang Y.S., 2014. Traceability in a food supply chain: safety and quality perspectives. Food Control 39, 172–184.
Beckett, S.T. 2000. The science of chocolate. Royal Society of Chemistry, London.
Beckett, S.T. 2008. Traditional chocolate making. In: S.T. Beckett (Ed.). Industrial chocolate manufacture and use. 4th edn. Wiley-Blackwell Science, Hoboken NJ.
Beg M.S., Ahmad S., Jan K., Bashir K., 2017. Status, supply chain and processing of cocoa – a review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 66, 108–116.
Bernaert H., Blondeel I., Allegaert L., Lohmueller T., 2012. Industrial treatment of cocoa in chocolate production: health implications. In: R. Paoletti, A. Poli, A. Conti, F. Visioli (Eds.). Chocolate and health. Springer, Milan – Dordrecht – Heidelberg – London – New York, 17–30.
Cambrai A., Marcic C., Morville S., Sae Houer P., Bindler F., Marchioni E., 2010. Differentiation of chocolates according to the cocoa’s geographical origin using chemometrics. J. Agricult. Food Chem. 58(3), 1478–1483.
Capuano E., Van Ruth S.M., 2012. QA: Fraud control for foods and other biomaterials by product fingerprinting. In: I. Akyar (Ed.). Latest research into quality control. IntechOpen, 111–143. DOI 10.5772/51271.
Caswell J.A., 2006. Quality assurance, information tracking and consumer labeling. Marine Poll. Bull. 53, 650–656.
COCOBOD, 2013. COCOBOD news.
Commission Regulation (EU) No 432/2012 of 16 May 2012 establishing a list of permitted health claims made on foods, other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children’s development and health. OJ L 136 of 25.05.2012, pp. 1–40.
Czarniecka-Skubina E., Nowak D., 2012. System for tracking and tracing flow and origin of food as tool to ensure consumer safety. ŻNTJ 5(84), 20–36.
D’Souza R.N., Grimbs S., Behrends B., Bernaert H., Ullrich M.S., Kuhnert N., 2017. Origin-based polyphenolic fingerprinting of Theobroma cacao in unfermented and fermented beans. Food Res. Int. 99, 550–559.
Dabenne F., Gay P., 2011. Food traceability systems: performance evaluation and optimization. Comp. Electr. Agricult. 75(1), 139–146.
De La Cruz E., Pereira I., 2009. Historias, saberes y sabores en torno al cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) en la subregión de Barlovento, Estado Miranda. Sapiens. Revista Universitaria de Investigaci 10(2), 97–120.
Deasy D.J., 2002. Food safety and assurance: the role of information technology. Int. J. Dairy Technol. 55(1), 1–4.
Farah D.M.H., Zaibunnisa A.H., Misnawi J., Zainal S., 2012. Effect of roasting process on the concentration of acrylamide and pyrazines in roasted cocoa beans from different origins. APCBEE Procedia 4, 204–208.
Galvez J.F., Mejuto J.C., Simal-Gandara J., 2018. Future challenges on the use of blockchain for food traceability analysis. Trends Anal. Chem. 107, 222–232.
Gutiérrez T.J., 2017. State-of-the-art chocolate manufacture: a review. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 16(6), 1313–1344.
Hu Y., Pan Z.J., Liao W., Li J., Gruget P., Kitts D.D., Lu X., 2016. Determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy. Food Chem. 202, 254–261.
International Cocoa Organization, 2014. The cocoa market situation. London.
International Fertilizer Development Center, 2014. IFDC report 37(1). An update on the work and progress of IFDC. Muscle Shoals AL.
Kim J., Lee K.W., Lee H.J., 2011. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) seeds and phytochemicals in human health. In: V.R. Preedy, R.R. Watson, V.B. Patel (Es.). Nuts and seeds in health and disease prevention. Academic Press/Elsevier, Burlington MA, 351–360.
Luykx D.M.A.M., van Ruth S.M., 2008. An overview of analytical methods for determining the geographical origin of food products. Food Chem. 107(2), 897–911.
Mahazar N.H., Sufian N.F., Meor Hussin A.S., Norhayati H., Mathawan M., Rukayadi Y., 2015. Candida sp. as a starter culture for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans fermentation. Int. Food Res. J. 22, 1783–1787.
Nunoo I., Frimpong B.N., Frimpong F.K., 2014. Fertilizer use among cocoa farmers in Ghana: The case of Sefwi Wiawso District. Int. J. Environ. 3(1), 22–31.
Prabhakaran Nair K.P., 2010. The agronomy and economy of important tree crops of the developing world. Elsevier. DOI 10.1016/C2010-0-64818-8.
Saltini R., Akkerman R., 2012. Testing improvements in the chocolate traceability system: Impact on product recalls and production efficiency. Food Control 23(1), 221–226.
Squicciarini M.P., Swinnen J., 2016. The economics of chocolate. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Wang X., Li D., O’Brien C., 2009. Optimisation of traceability and operations planning: an integrated model for perishable food production. Int. J. Prod. Res. 47(11), 2865–2886.
Wickramasuriya A.M., Dunwell J.M., 2018. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects. Plant Biotechnol. J. 16(1), 4–14. DOI 10.1111/pbi.12848.
World Cocoa Foundation, 2012. Cocoa market update. Retrieved from: http://www.worldcocoafoundatio....