Swelling pressure of natural and modified smectite-bearing clay raw materials
More details
Hide details
AGH University of Science and Technology
State Higher Vocational School in Tarnow
Wojciech Panna   

AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Kraków, Mickiewicza 30, Poland
Publication date: 2015-01-01
Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process. 2015;51(1):127–135
Smectite clays, due to their barrier properties and swelling ability, are often applied for waterproofing purposes. A proper value of swelling pressure is one of the parameters, which must be met by the fillers used in hybrid waterproofing materials. The authors determined the swelling pressure of selected clay raw materials in their natural state and after chemical modification. This parameter was measured by the Komine method, as this procedure is more accurate than the standard edometric method. The authors introduced some changes in the method. The samples represent Krakowiec clays (Miocene) and a Triassic clay, collected in active pits of building clays, which are widely exploited in south Poland. The content of the smectite group minerals, determined from the sorption of methylene blue and copper(II) triethylenetetramine, ranges between 15 and 35%. Further characteristics of the clays were obtained with X-ray diffraction, chemical analyses (calcium carbonate content including) and pH measurements. It has been found that the activation of smectite clays with sodium lowers their swelling pressure as water penetrates easier the interlayer spaces of the smectites modified. This is important from the viewpoint of assessing the quality of bentonite fillers.