Cites 2016

Cellulase as a new phosphate depressant in dolomite-phosphate flotation

Ahmed Yehia 1  ,  
Central Metallurgical R&D Institute
Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process. 2017;53(2):1092–1104
Publish date: 2017-05-10
Recently, many research efforts have been made to reduce the magnesium content in the phosphate concentrate to meet the requirement for phosphoric acid production and other applications. A bioprocessing technique is among these efforts. However, this paper was devoted to study the use of cellulase enzyme as a new phosphate depressant during fatty acid flotation of a calcareous phosphate rock. The flotation behavior of collophane and dolomite as single minerals using oleic acid as a collector and cellulase enzyme as the phosphate depressant was investigated in details. The results from single mineral flotation tests were discussed based on FTIR and zeta potential measurements to find out the mechanism of cellulase depression of phosphate. The findings from the single minerals tests were used to develop a selective flotation process for recovery of phosphate minerals from the natural phosphate ore. The flotation experiments were carried out to apply this new process using the calcareous phosphate ore. Under the optimum flotation conditions, 0.04% cellulase and 0.5 mM oleic acid, a phosphate concentrate containing 0.89% MgO with a P2O5 recovery of 75% was obtained from the phosphate ore containing 2.2% MgO.
Ahmed Yehia   
Central Metallurgical R&D Institute, p.box 87, 202 helwan, Egypt
1. ABDEL-KHALEK N.A., 2000, Evaluation of flotation strategies for sedimentary phosphate with siliceous and carbonates gangue, Minerals Engineering, 13(7), 789-793.
2. ABDEL-KHALEK N.A., SELIM K.A. and ABDALLAH S.S., 2015, Characterization of Bacillus cereus bacteria isolated from Egyptian iron ore surface, Elixir Bio Technology., 81, 32011-32015.b.
3. ABOUZEID A.Z., NEGM A.T., EL-GILLANI D.A., 2009, Upgrading of calcareous phosphate ores by flotation: Effect of ore characteristics, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 90, 81–89.
4. AHMED H.A.M., ALJUHANI M.S., DRZYMALA J., 2013, Flotation after direct contact of flotation reagents with particles. Part I. Model investigations, Physicochemical Problem of Mineral Processing, 49(2), 713–723.
5. AHMED Y., ABDEL-KHALEK M.A, FADE, M., MILLER J.D., WISNIEWSKA S., WANG X., 2001, Fatty acid flotation of calcareous phosphate rock using enzymes for a selective separation, Presented at the Engineering Foundation Conference: Beneficiation of Phosphate III, Florida, December 2-7.
6. AHMED Y., REHEEM F.H.A., 2012, Some physico-chemical aspects related to the deinking Process using xylenase as a surface modifier, Elixir Applied Chemistry, 48, 9498-9502.
7. AL-FARISS T.F., ARAFAT Y., ABD EL-ALEEM F.A.E., EL-MIDANY A.A., 2014, Investigating sodium sulphate as a phosphate depressant in acidic media, Separation and Purification Technology, 124, 163–169.
8. AMANKONAH J., SOMASUNDARAN P., 1985, Effects of dissolved mineral species on the electrokinetic behavior of calcite and apatite, Colloids and Surfaces, 15, 335-353.
9. ANTONY A., 2009, Novel technique for the separation of dolomite from phosphate rock, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Florida.
10. ANZIA I.J., HANNA J., 1987, New flotation approach for carbonate phosphate separation, Minerals and Metallurgical. Processing, 4(4), 196-202.
11. BEEBE R.A., POSNER A.S., 1975, Surface studies of bone mineral and related calcium phosphates, physico-chimite et crystallographie des apatites, D. Int. Biologique, 230, 275.
12. BOULOS T.R., AHMED Y., IBRAHIM S.S., YASSIN K.E. 2014, A modification in the flotation process of calcareous siliceous phosphorite that might improve the process economics, Minerals Engineering, 69, 97-101.
13. BOULOS T.R., ABDEL-KHALEK N.A., IBRAHIM S.S., 2000, Rationalization of the flotation circuit of an Egyptian phosphorite plant, Tenside Surfactants-Deterg., 3, 176-182.
14. CHAMPE P.C., HARVE, R.A., 1994, Biochemistry, 2nd Ed., Lippincott J.B., Company, Philadelphia.
15. CORBRIDGE D.E.C., LOWE E.J., 1954, Infrared spectra of inorganic phosphorous compounds, Part I and II; Journal of the Chemical Society, 493 and 4555.
16. DOS SANTOS M.A., SANTANAR C., CAPPONI F., ATAIDE C.H., BARROZO M.A.S., 2012, Influence of the water composition on the selectivity of apatite flotation, Separation Science and Technology, 47(4), 606-612.
17. DUBEL J., 1990, Mycobacterium phlei as flocculating agent for mineral suspensions, MMRI report, University of Nevada, Reno, U.S.A.
18. EL-MAHDY A.M., EL-MOFTY S.E., ABDEL-KHALEK M.A., ABDEL-KHALEK, N.A., EL-MIDANY A.A., 2013, Bacterially induced phosphate–dolomite separation using amphoteric collector, Separation and Purification Technology, 102, 94–102.
19. EL-SHALL H., ZHANG P., ABDEL KHALEK N.A., EL-MOFTY S., 2004, Beneficiation technology of phosphates: Challenges and Solutions, Minerals and Metallurgical Processing, 21 (1), 17-26.
20. EL-SHALL H., ZHANG P., SNOW R., 1996, Comparative analysis of dolomite-francolite flotation techniques, Minerals and Metallurgical Processing, 13(3)135-140.
21. FERRARO J.R., BASILE L.J., 1978, Infrared Spectroscopy, Academic Press, New York.
22. GUIMARAES R.C., ARAUJO A.C., PERES A.E.C., 2005, Reagents in igneous phosphate ores flotation, Minerals Engineering, 18(2), 199-204.
23. HERMAN A.S., 1963, Infrared Handbook, Plenum Press, New York.
24. HOUOT R., 1982, Beneficiation of phosphate through flotation-Review of industrial applications, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 9, 353-384.
25. LIN K.F., BURDICK C.L., 1988, Polymeric depressants, Reagents in Mineral Technology. Edited by Somasundaran, P. and Moudgil, B. New York: Marcel Dekker, 471-483.
26. MICHELLE L.S., ROBERT D.T., 2001., Adsorption of protein/ surfactant complexes at the air/aqueous interface, Colloids and Surfaces B: Bio interfaces, 20, 281-293.
27. PRASAD M., MAJUNDER A.K., RAO T.C., 2000, Reverse flotation of sedimentary calcareous/dolomitic rock phosphate ore-An overview, Minerals and Metallurgical Processing, 17, 1, 49-55.
28. PREDALI J.J., 1969, Flotation of carbonates with salt of fatty acids. Role of pH and the akyl chain, Trans IMM, 78, 140c-147c.
29. READ A.D., MANSER R.M., 1972, Surface polarizability and flotation: Study of the effect of cation type on the oleate flotation of three orthosilicates, Trans. Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 81.
30. REIS R.L.R., PERES A.E.C., ARAUJO A.C., 1988, Corn grits: A new depressant agent for the flotation of iron ores and phosphate rocks. In Proceedings of the II International Mineral Processing Symposium. Izmir, Turkey: Dokuz Eylul University, 389-397.
31. SHALTIEL S., 1975, Hydrophobic chromatography, use in the resolution, purification and probing of proteins, Proceeding of the Tenth FEBS meeting, 117-127.
32. SHARMA P.K, RAO K.H., 2003, Adhesion of paenibacillus polymyxa on chalcopyrite and pyrite: surface thermodynamics and extended DLVO theory, Colloid and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 29, 29-38.
33. SIS H., CHANDER S., 2003, Reagents used in the flotation of phosphate ores: a critical review, Minerals Engineering, 16 (7), 577–585.
34. SMITH R.W., MIETTINEN M., 2006, Microorganisms in flotation and flocculation: Future technology or laboratory curiosity, Minerals Engineering, 19(6–8), 548–553.
35. SMITH R.W, MISRA M., 1993, Recent developments in the bioprocessing (Review), Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 12, 37-60.
36. SOCRATES G., 1980, Infrared characteristic group frequencies, A Wiley Interscience Publication, New York.
37. SOMASUNDARAN P., 1999, Adsorption of starch and oleate and interaction between them on calcite in aq. Solns., Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, New York, 31, (4), 557.
38. VIANA P.R.M., SOUZA H.S., 1988, The use of corn grits as a depressant for the flotation of quartz in hematite ore, In Proceeding of the 2nd Latin- American Congress on Froth Flotation, Development in mineral Processing, 9. Edited by Castro, S.H.F. and Alvarez, J.M., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 233-244.
39. WANG X., NGUYEN A.V., MILLER J.D., 2006, Selective attachment and spreading of hydroxamic acid–alcohol collector mixtures in phosphate flotation, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 78 (2), 122–130.
40. YASUTAKA K., TAKATO Y., TAKASHI K., KOHSUKE M., HIROMI Y., 2011, Enhancement in adsorption and catalytic activity of enzymes immobilized on phosphorus- and calcium-modified MCM-41, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 115 (34), 10335–10345.
41. ZHENG X., SMITH R.W., 1997, Dolomite depressants in the flotation of apatite and collophane, Minerals Engineering, 10(5), 537-545.