Optimization of laterites leaching by application of sequential design of experiments
More details
Hide details
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
OpEx (Six Sigma) Master Black Belt Independent Consultant, Klodzka 1f/1, 55-040 Bielany Wroclawskie, Poland
Katarzyna Ochromowicz   

Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process. 2018;54(2):343–354
The sequential designed experimentation was applied for leaching of Ni-Fe-Mg containing serpentine ores. The experiments were arranged in two sequences, according to the 2IV4-1 fractional factorial experimental design. Six factors were examined, i.e., the material sample, solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L), acid type and its concentration, leaching temperature, and stirring speed. The analysis of variance was used to establish the relation between tested factors, their interactions, and metals recovery. All the derived empirical models were of prime statistical importance. The obtained results showed that the recovery of Ni was dependent mainly on the material sample, the concentration of acid as well as their interaction, and temperature. The recovery of nickel at the optimal leaching conditions was high (93%). The dissolution of other metals was below 84% (Fe) and 54% (Mg).
ANDERSON M.J., WHITCOMB P. J., 2007, DOE Simplified, (second ed)., CRC Press, Taylor&Francis Group, Boca Raton, Chap. 3.
ARROYO J.C., NEUDORF D.A., 2001, Atmospheric Leach Process for the Recovery of Nickel and Cobalt from Limonite and Saprolite Ores, US Patent, Appl.6261527.
BOX G., 1993, Sequential Experimentation and Sequential Assembly of Designs, Qual. Eng., 5 (2), pp. 321-330.
CETINTAS S., BINGOL D., 2016, Response surface methodology approach to leaching of nickel laterite and evaluation of different analytical techniques used for the analysis of leached solutions, Anal. Methods, 8, pp. 3075-3087.
CZITROM V., 1999, One-Factor-At-A-Time Versus Designed Experiments, Am. Stat., 53 (2), pp.126-131.
DALVI A. D., BACON W. G., OSBORNE R. C., 2004, The Past and the Future of Nickel Laterites, PDAC International Convention, Trade Show & Investors Exchange, March 7-10.
DUBIŃSKA E., SAKHAROV B. A., KAPROŃ G., BYLINA P., KOZUBOWSKI J. A., 2000, Layer silicates from Szklary (Lower Silesia): from ocean floor metamorphism to continental chemical weathering, Geologia Sudetica, 33, pp. 85-105.
GHARABAGHI M., AZADMEHR A., 2016, Optimization of Nickel Chemical Extraction from Hazardous Residue, Int. J. Chem. React. Eng., 14 (1), pp. 175–183.
GHARABAGHI M., IRANNAJAD M., AZADMEHR A.R., EJTEMAEI M., 2012, Process Optimization Of Nickel Extraction From Hazardous Waste, Arch. Environ. Prot., 38 (3), pp. 29 – 40.
GUO X.Y., LI D., PARK K.H., TIAN Q.H., and WU Z., 2009, Leaching behavior of metals from a limonitic nickel laterite using a sulfation- roasting-leaching process, Hydrometallurgy, 99 (3-4), pp.144 – 150.
HUNTER H. M.A., HERRINGTON R.J., OXLEY E. A., 2013, Examining Ni-laterite leach mineralogy & chemistry – a holistic multi-scale approach, Miner. Eng., 54, pp. 100–109.
KAR B.B, SWAMY Y.V, MURTHY B.V.R, 2000, Design of experiments to study the extraction of nickel from lateritic ore by sulphatization using sulphuric acid, Hydrometallurgy, 56 (3), pp. 387–394.
LEITNAKER M. G., SANDERS R. D., HILD CH., 1996, The Power of Statistical Thinking. Improving Industrial Processes, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Massachusetts, Chap. 1.
LI D., PARK K.H., WU Z., GUO X. Y., 2010, Response surface design for nickel recovery from laterite by sulfation-roasting-leaching process, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 20, pp. 92-96.
LIU K., CHEN Q.Y., HU H.P., YIN Z.L., and WU B.K., 2010, Pressure acid leaching of a Chinese laterite ore containing mainly maghemite and magnetite, Hydrometallurgy, 104 (1), pp. 32-38.
LUO W., FENGA Q., OUA L., ZHANGA G., CHEN Y., 2010, Kinetics of saprolitic laterite leaching by sulphuric acid at atmospheric pressure, Miner. Eng., 23 (6), pp. 458–462.
MACCARTHY J., NOSRATI A., SKINNER W., Addai-Mensah J., 2014a, Atmospheric acid leaching of nickel laterites: effect of temperature, particle size and mineralogy, Chemeca Conference, September 28-October 1, Perth, Australia.
MACCARTHY, J., NOSRATI, A., SKINNER,W., ADDAI-MENSAH, J., 2014b, Dissolution and rheological behaviour of hematite and quartz particles in aqueous media at pH 1, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 92, pp. 2509–2522.
MARSHALL, D., BUARZAIGA, M., 2004, Effect of magnesium content on sulphuric acid consumption during high pressure acid leaching of laterite ores, International Laterite Nickel Symposium, TMS (The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society), pp. 307–316.
MCDONALD R.G., WHITTINGTON B.I., 2008, Atmospheric acid leaching of nickel laterites review Part I. Sulphuric acid technologies, Hydrometallurgy 91, pp. 35–55.
MILIVOJEVIC M., STOPIC S., FRIEDRICH B., STOJANOVIC B., and DRNDAREVIC D., 2012, Computer modeling of high-pressure leaching process of nickel laterite by design of experiments and neural networks, Int. J. Miner., Metall. Mater., 19 (7), pp. 584–594.
MONTGOMERY D.C.: 2008, Design and Analysis of Experiments, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
OXLEY A., BARCZA N., 2013, Hydro–pyro integration in the processing of nickel laterites, Miner. Eng., 54, pp. 2–13.
POROCH-SERITAN M., GUTT S., GUTT G., CRETESCU I., COJOCARU C., SEVERIN T., 2011, Design of experiments for statistical modeling and multi-response optimization of nickel electroplating process, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 89, pp. 136–147.
QUAST K., XU D., SKINNER W., NOSRATI A., HILDER T., ROBINSON D.J., ADDAI-MENSAH J., 2013, Column leaching of nickel laterite agglomerates: effect of feed size, Hydrometallurgy, (134–135), pp. 144–149.
QUAST K., ADDAI-MENSAH J., SKINNER W., 2017, Preconcentration strategies in the processing of nickel laterite ores Part 5: Effect of mineralogy, Minerals Engineering, 110, pp. 31-39.
RICE N. M., 2016, A hydrochloric acid process for nickeliferous laterites, Minerals Engineering, 88, 28-52.
STOPIC S., FRIEDRICH B., ANASTASIJEVIC N., ONIJA A., 2003, Experimental Design Approach Regarding Kinetics of High Pressure Leaching Processes, Metalurgija – J. Metall., 9, pp.273-282.
WANG L. Y., LEE M. S., 2017, Recovery of Co(II) and Ni(II) from chloride leach solution of nickel laterite ore by solvent extraction with a mixture of Cyanex 301 and TBP, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 240, 345-350.
XU, D., LIU, L.X., QUAST, K., ADDAI-MENSAH, J., ROBINSON, D.J., 2013, Effect of nickel laterite agglomerate properties on their leaching performance, Adv. Powder Technol., 24, pp.750–756.
ZHANG P., GUO Q., WEI G., QU J., QI T., 2015, Precipitation of α-Fe2O3 and recovery of Ni and Co from synthetic laterite-leaching solutions, Hydrometallurgy, 153,021-29.
ZUNIGA M., PARADA F. L., ASSELIN E., 2010, Leaching of a limonitic laterite in ammoniacal solutions with metallic iron, Hydrometallurgy, 104, pp. 260–267.