High-temperature carbothermal dephosphorization of Malaysian monazite
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School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
Universiti Sains Malaysia
School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
CSIRO Mineral Resources: Clayton South, Victoria, Australia.
Publication date: 2021-10-19
Corresponding author
Sheikh Abdul Rezan Bin Sheikh Abdul Hamid   

Universiti Sains Malaysia
Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process. 2021;57(6):144-159
High-temperature carbothermal reduction experiments with graphite powder were conducted to assess the dephosphorization behavior of Malaysian monazite concentrate. Thermodynamic analysis of the possible dephosphorization reactions was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the carbothermal reduction of the monazite phases. The effects of temperature, particle size, and monazite to carbon ratio were then investigated under different conditions. The carbothermal reduction experiments were conducted based on the Taguchi design method, and up to 97% of phosphorous removal was achieved under optimized conditions. The optimal conditions for dephosphorization were determined as; a reduction temperature of 1350 °C, a particle size of -75 µm, and monazite to carbon molar ratio of 0.3. Microstructural and phase characterization of the dephosphorized products revealed that CeO2, Nd2O3, La2O3, and Pr2O3 oxide phases were prominent, and no residual peaks of monazite remained in the reduced products. The information gained from the study can aid in the design of a suitable post-dephosphorization hydrometallurgical treatment for exploiting Malaysian monazite as a local source of REEs.
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