Complex electrothermal processing of an oxide zinc-containing ore of the Shaymerden deposit
More details
Hide details
South Kazakhstan State University named after M.Auezov
Viktor Shevko   

South Kazakhstan State University named after M.Auezov, Tauke Khan avenue, 5, 160000 Shymkent, Kazakhstan
Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process. 2018;54(3):955–964
Oxide ores are potential world raw materials sources of zinc manufacture. Despite a sufficiently high extraction level of zinc and lead known pyrometallurgical methods are characterized by formation of large quantity of industrial wastes therefore a complex use level of these raw materials is low. Hydrometallurgical methods are mainly applied for extraction of nonferrous metals. The present article contains the research results of complex processing an oxide ore of the Shaymerden deposit (Kazakhstan), consisting in the simultaneous production of a ferroalloy, calcium carbide and zinc sublimates from the ore in a thermal-ore arc electric furnace. The researches have been carried out with use of a HSC 5.1 software package (based on a principle of Gibbs energy minimum) and electrical smelting the ore in a monoelectrode arc electric controlled-output furnace. It was found, that in equilibrium conditions in a system ore-carbon-iron gaseous zinc is formed at Т > 1073 K, FeSi at Т > 1573 K, CaC2 at Т > 2073 K, Si at Т > 1673 K. The electrosmelting of ore in an arc furnace using of 38.7-40% coke and 16-28.4% steel cuttings the conversion degree of silicon into an alloy is 75-77%, calcium to calcium carbide 77-81%, zinc to sublimates 99.3%. The ferroalloy obtained contains 19.6-41.3% of silicon, the calcium carbide is characterized by capacity of 110-250 m3/kg, and the zinc sublimates contain 66-67% of zinc. The -suggested method allows to increase the combined usage of the ore from 35.6 to 89.6%
ABDEEV M.A., KOLESNIKOV A.V., USHAKOV N.N., 1985, Wellawaya zinc - lead-containing materials, Moscow: Metallurgy, 120p.
ABRAMOV A.A., 2005, The technology of processing and concentration of red wet metals, Moscow, Publishing house of Moscow state University, volume 2, 470p.
AICHUN D., 2016, A Novel Process for Treating with Low Grade Zinc Oxide Ores in Hydrometallurgy, TMS 2016: 145 Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Supplemental Proceedings.
AKHNAZAROVA S.A., KAFAROV, B.V., 1978, Methods for optimization of experiment in chemical industry, Moscow: High school, 319p.
ALGEBRAISTOVA N.K., KONDRATEVA A.A., 2009, Lab. workshop "The Technology of enrichment of ores of nonferrous metals", Krasnoyarsk: IATSFU, 80p.
ANTROPOVA I.G., 2005, Physico-chemical and technological bases sulfidizing firing of oxidized lead - zinc ore in the atmosphere of superheated steam, thesis of the candidate. tech. Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 146p.
ANTROPOVA I.G., GULYASHINOV A.N., LEMUEL V.A., PALEEV P.L., 2009, Method of processing of refractory oxidized lead ore, Patent Russian Federation #2364639.
CHANTURIA, V.L., TROFIMOV E.A., 1985, Processing of oxidized ores, Moscow: Science, 69-71.
ERSHOV V.A., DANCIS J.B., REUTOVICH L.N., 1974, The production of calcium carbide. Leningrad: Chemistry, 147p.
GIZATULIN O.V., IVAKIN D.A., KAZANBAEV L.A., KOZLOV P.A., KOLESNIKOV A.V., 2006. Charge for Waelz zinc-containing materials, Patent Russian Federation #2284361.
GULYASHINOV A.N. ANTROPOVA I.G. KALININ YU.O. HANTURGAEVA G.I, 2003, Method for processing of oxidized zinc ore, Patent Russian Federation #2208059.
IRANNAJAD M., MESHKINI M., AZADMEHR A., 2013, Leaching of zinc from low grade oxide ore using organic acid, Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing, #49(2), 547-555.
KAZANBAEV L.A., KOZLOV P.A., KOLESNIKOV A.V., RESHETNIKOV YU.V., 1998, Method of rolling of oxidised zinc-containing materials, Patent Russian Federation #2119965.
KAZANBAEV L.A., KOZLOV P.A., KUBASOV V.L., 2007, Hydrometallurgy of zinc. The process of leaching, Moscow: Ore and metals, 120p.
KIM L.D., TULYAGANOV SH.R., MAMATKULOV H., VEJLIVCEV A.A., MAVLONKULOV R.K., CHOI YU.N., MAMATKULOV P.H., 2010, Method for processing poor oxidized zinc ores and concentrates with the recovery of zinc, manganese, iron, lead, silver, calcium and silicon dioxide, Patent Russian Federation #2441930.
KLEBANOV O.B., SHUBOV L.Y., SHCHEGLOV N.K., 1974, Reference technologist for the enrichment of ores of non-ferrous metals, Moscow: The bowels, 319-323.
KOZLOV K.B., LAVROV, B.A., 2011, Obtaining calcium carbide in an arc furnace and its analysis. Saint-Petersburg, Saint-Petersburg state technological Institute (technical University), 20p.
KOZLOV P.A., KOLESNIKOV A.V., KONONOV A.I., MIZIN V.G., SAMSIKOV E.A., SPERKACH I.E., 2008, A method of processing Gelezinkeliai materials, Patent Russian Federation #2329312.
MA A., PENG J., ZHANG L., SHIWEI L., YANG K., ZHENG X., 2016, Leaching Zn from the low - grade zinc oxide ore in NH3 - H3C6H5O7 - H2O media, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, #33.
MAMYACHENKOV S.V., RAMAZANOVA R.A., BYKOV R.A., SERAYA N.V., 2016, Evaluation of the process of sulfuric acid leaching of zinc from oxidized zinc ore truboobrabotka of the mathematical modeling, Complex Use of Mineral Raw Materials #3, 63-66.
Methodical recommendations on application of Classification of reserves and prognostic resources of solid minerals «Lead and zinc ore», Moscow, 2007, 40p.
Minerals and deposits of Russia and CIS countries: [Electronic resource]. URL: (Date of access: 30.05.2015).
NAPO D., NTULI F., MUZENDA E., MOLLAGEE M., 2011, Process Intensification of Zinc Oxide Leaching Process Using Sulphuric Acid, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, #II, 5.
New methods for processing zinc-containing raw materials abroad: review. inform. The production of heavy non-ferrous metals, Moscow: CRIEICM, rel. 1, 1974, 44p.
PALENOVA E.E., BELOGUB E.V., KOTLYAROV V.A., 2010, Mineralogy of oxidized ores of the Deposit Shaimerden, Saint-petersburg: XI Congress of the pod. Modern Mineralogy: from theory to practice, 231-233.
QIN W., LAN ZH., LI W., 2003, Recovery of zinc from low - grade zinc oxide ores by solvent extraction, Journal of Central South University of Technology, #10, 98-102.
ROINE A., 2002, Outokumpu HSС Chemistry for Windows. Chemical Reaction and Eguilibrium loftware with Extensive Thermochemical Database, Pori: Outokumpu Research OY.
Scientific Group Thermodata Europe: [Electronic resource]. URL: (Date of access: 03.01.2018).
SHEVKO V.M., AMANOV D.D., KARATAEVA G.E., AJTKULOV D.K., 2016, Kinetics of receiving of complex Ferroalloy of silicon-aluminum-containing flasks, International journal of applied and fundamental research, #10-2, 194-196.
SHEVKO V.M., KARATAEVA G.E., 2015, Metallurgy of zinc and cadmium, Shymkent: South Kazakhstan State University, 350p.
The global commodity markets: [Electronic resource]. URL: (Date of access: 18.05.2015).